MUSIC OF CABO VERDE & GUINEA-BISSAU

SYNTHESIZE THE SOUL:
ASTRO-ATLANTIC HYPNOTICA FROM THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS 1973-1988 (Ostinato Records)

I've got good news, and bad news. The good news is the reissue companies have finally run out of Afro-Funk to reissue; the bad news is they have moved on to African disco. The worst whiny synthesizer sounds ever created over a relentless bomp bomp are nothing to take lightly, but don't worry readers, I did the listening for you and can say that you can safely skip this. It's not all vile: "Posse Bronck" by Nho Balta might make the cut on another compilation and not be too repulsive, and even "Lameirao" by Kola has a horn-led charge that is pleasant enough, but the compilers really pulled out the organ stops to find examples of Cabo Verdean music that met the expectations of Euro-disco fans in the 70s and 80s. They didn't have electronic instruments back in the islands, but immigrants to Europe soon found them, especially once the tide of expatriates swelled following independence in 1975. The result is indistinguishable from scores of other feeble attempts to generate some saturday night fever. So, on second thoughts, let's go back to the cold sweat.

MEMORIAS DE AFRICA
AS GRANDES MUSICAS DOS ANOS 60, 70 E 80. ANGOLA, CABO VERDE, GUINE-BISSAU, MOÇAMBIQUE E SAO TOME E PRINCIPE (Difference 2008 FAROL 85807)

This is an 88-page hardback book with 4 CDs, each devoted to a Lusophone culture in Africa from the 60s through the 1980s. (In case you are wondering, "Lusophone" is when you drop your cellphone down a sewer grate, according to my pal Larry.) This comp is new to me, thanks to fellow DJ David Noyes, who alerted me to it, and since I am always on the quest for this music, specifically, I am thrilled to get hold of a copy. The book is a bit overdone, sort of an extra-illustrated Wikipedia article on each section, with a lot about the geography and climate and not enough about the music. There are personal essays by people connected to the music, including Firmino Pascoal, Angolan musician, Jorge de Jesus Rodrigues, Angolan writer, Virgílio Correia, music promoter in those parts, Juca Delgado, music producer in Guinea Bissau, and Samuel Yana Munguambe, teacher/researcher in Mozambique. As facts about the groups, such as Super Mama Djombo, Cobiana Djazz, Sangazuza, and Africa Negra are hard to come by, it's worth dealing with the "rose bisque"-colored spindly type that carries the english text. What's great is the music, and considering many master tapes were lost in the interim, the sound is excellent. Angola has been well represented by the 5-disc set on Buda Musique and the essential Soul of Angola, a 2-disc set on Lusafrica. There are two duplications from Buda's Angola 70s, which is not much, and it's surprising that Bonga was left off, but two other big names are present: Teta Lando and Carlos Lamartine. That lovelorn "morna" quality from Cabo Verdean music permeated tracks like Teta Lando's "Nizambi" which closes the Angolan disc. There are lots of surprises on here, and they are woven into a tapestry that includes standbys, like Voz de Cabo Verde, who have three entries on the second disc. If you are missing Cesaria Evora, check out the sprightly version of "Sodade" by Marino Silvia which sends her lugubrious rendition packing. Also absent, Bau and Boy Ge Mendes, but it's great to hear a different selection. "O Bernardo" by Ana Firmino is also reminiscent of the late cigar-puffing diva, but has much more joie de vivre and just a twist of saudade. The third disc "Guiné-Bissau" is a sampler of five bands with two or three tracks from each: Super Mama Djombo (taken from their 1978 debut album Na Cambança, including the sublime "Suur di no púbis"), Saba Miniamba, José Carlos Schwarz, N'Kassa Cobra and Zé Manel, the former drummer of Super Mama Djombo. The N'Kassa Cobra tracks are exciting: three come from their 1983 album Unidade luta progresso, and one from their 1982 debut. Not to be missed. The fourth disc features Moçambique along with Sao Tomé & Principe. There's a record skip in the second track, "A uni tenderi" by Conjunto Kwe-Kweti, which should have been taken care of. I guess it adds authenticity. The known factors, Sangazuza, Africa Negra and Os Leonenses are buried in the middle of this set. Preceding them are some folkloric tracks which gradually reveal some latin currents in the guitar rhythms. But when Africa Negra cut loose on "Aninha" you know you have arrived somewhere. Not only is it the standout on this side, it will make you want to immediately start collecting all their discs.

KIMI DJABATE
KANAMALU (Red Orange RED1601)

Kimi Djabata hails from the village of Tabato in Guinea-Bissau, a place known for its griots (His family had come from Mali centuries before and were invited to settle there by the local king who liked what he heard). Kimi is firmly in the tradition while also having a foot in the modern world. He plays (and wears, apparently -- see the cover photo) balafon and is accompanied by kora, guitar, calabash, congas, djembe and electric guitar on his third album. The modernity quotient arrives in the form of blues and latin touches in the solos. Reportedly there are gospel and even fado influences in here too. However the first thing I notice is a soukous guitar permeating the second cut "Anhonté," which is a danceable little number. Nowadays Djabaté seems to be based in Portugal but is keeping alive the traditional music of his homeland (while allowing modernization in terms of pan-African grooves), singing about family, collective effort, unity, and democracy. Joy and suffering are both parts of love, he sings, but let's get rid of envy and pull together. There are some rocking moments in here, like "Kanu" with clipped guitar weaving filigree around the balafon patterns. Kimi D is a living exemplar of a great griot tradition and immediately draws us into his confidence as we sense his being pervading this whole album.

BITORI
LEGEND OF FUNANA (Analog Africa AACD/or/AALP 081)

For small remote islands off the West coast of Africa at the latitude of Senegal, Cabo Verde packs a musical punch far above its fighting weight. Successive currents of great music have come from there over the years. We know of "morna," the bittersweet bluesy form, because it was promoted internationally through the success of Cesária Evora. The line-up invariably included the tiny mandolin-like cavaquinho (which is also popular in Brasil), clarinet, accordion, violin, and sometimes, piano and guitar. "Coladeira" is another indigenous rhythm, more uptempo, which incorporates elements of samba and zouk, as waves of popular music arrive in the islands and are absorbed. The main noticeable difference is the guitar part which uses a thumbed bass note, followed by a chorded strum with the other fingers in a two-part boom-ching beat. These forms were brought to us by Popular African Music on two CDs: Music from São Nicolau (pamap 603) and Conjunto Mané Pchei (pamap 604), recorded in 1980 before synthesizers and electric guitars took over. A third, more engaging form -- Funaná -- came to our attention with the Ferro Gaita album on Harmonia, as well as the Palop Africa! anthology on Earthworks in 1999. The story of this newly reissued album began in the early fifties with a young man, Victor Tavares, known as Bitori, determined to get his hands on an accordeon. And where does someone from a small island in the Atlantic go on such a quest? To another island, this one being the other Portuguese colony of São Tomé, further south. After he mastered the instrument, Bitori launched into the folk music scene playing funaná accompanied by the sound of an iron rod scraped by a kitchen knife. The raw roots music was banned by the authorities and remained underground until independence in 1975. Tavares was approached by a singer, Chandal Graciosa, who suggested if they went to the Netherlands they could record an album. And so the legendary Bitori album first appeared in Holland and immediately swept the duo to fame at home. By then Bitori was 60 years old. Now intrepid musical explorer Samy Ben Redjeb has found the original artists and their album and brought them back to us. To the ferro and gaïta (iron rod and accordeon) they added bass and drums. There's also whistling on one track. It's rocking folk music, not too dissimilar from batchata or zouk, but with a great propulsive urgency to it.


TITINA
CANTA B. LEZA (Astral Music STCD3064)

One unfortunate aspect of "world music" is they way countries get checked off by listeners. They hear Ali Farka Touré (for example) & think that he represents all Malian music; Gilberto Gil? OK, that's Brasil covered, and then Cesaria Evora comes to stand for all Cabo Verdean music. So dozens of equally talented or better artists don't get a fair hearing. Titina was making it well before Evora and here is her landmark 1988 album lovingly restored to audio high-fidelity. "B. Leza" -- obviously a pseudonym meaning "Belleza (beautiful)" -- was allegedly a merchant navy officer who retired to the Cape Verde islands on the Tropic of Cancer, with his guitar and introduced the semi-tone to those islands. From the age of 4, little Titina would be drawn to the sound of his playing. He blended both "morna" and "fado" -- two of the rich musical traditions of the islands (as well as the resident colonist Portuguese culture). And we wonder, what would they be without those diminished sevenths?!! Listening to this reminds me strongly of Bahia, Brasil, and makes me keen to reread Jorge Amado, their great national author, and let my mind wander in those pastel-washed streets. There's cavaquinho, clarinet, even a string trio adding lushness behind Titina's lovely voice. It may seem a little old-fashioned and corny to some ears. Paulino Vieira, who was musical director for Evora, also produced this disc in his youth, as well as playing many instruments (violin, piano, percussion, cavaquinho). Today he is a member of the National Assembly, having hung up his rock 'n roll shoes, but I am sure he juices up the cuica from time to time. So give this a spin. It's dramatic and lyrical, sweet and tart, sugar cane with a dash of lime. Sample here.


TCHEKA
LONJI (Times Square FQT-CD-09)

Light, summery music from Tcheka. Most pleasant. How come suddenly Cabo Verde is producing the best new crop of musicians in Africa (since Mali)? Tcheka comes on the heels of the divas Lura and Sara Tavares, and with his Portuguese lyrics reminds me of Lenine, the brilliant Brasilian singer-songwriter. I was mightily disappointed when Lenine's summer tour was canceled, so this will have to satisfy me for now. In my review of Tcheka's debut album I said it reminded me of Lenine, and sure and begorrah the mighty one graces this outing with his presence. Even when he is just playing triangle, he is all over it! He also plays second guitar and sings backup vocal. The cuica and caxixi percussion also bring Brasil to mind. Other percussive interludes are provided by rain and telephone book! The title track is really lovely: Tcheka's wistful voice balanced against his acoustic guitar and a susurration of Brasilian percussion makes it fresh. Accordion is brought in for "Tuti Santiagu," along with some stirring snare drumming. Trumpet, trombone and a smattering of effects are also brought to bear on the compositions, without being over-produced. However the projector noise on "Primeru bes kin ba cinema (First kiss at the cinema)" is a bit of an irritation.


Sara Tavares; Photo by Yoko

SARA TAVARES
LIVE at the Florence Gould Theatre on Sunday 21 October, 2007.

The place was packed and after opening with a few gentle tunes, Tavares kicked back her chair and got on her feet, quickly followed by the crowd who were dancing in the aisles. She turned it over to her guitarist for one number and he was outstanding (No wonder: I learned later it was Boy Ge Mendes!). Tavares is Cape Verdean, born in Lisbon, but completely immersed in her roots. Unlike the traditional morna & coladeira sounds of Cesaria Evora, Tavares puts her own sensibility into the music she writes. Some of her songs are in crioulo but when she sings "Bom feeling" the audience knows and gets into the groove to sing along. Not only was the sound mix perfect, everyone, including her drummer/percussionist (Ndu Carlos) and bass player (Gogui Embalo) got to show off their adroitness. Mendes on electric guitar was an added treat. Afterwards IJ dragged us backstage to meet the band, as his his wont. I prefer to leave, assuming the artists have just given their all for an hour or more and want to unwind, not hear accolades from twerps with a poor grasp of Portuguese. I met Yusuf, owner of her label, and he told me proudly that he only signs artists who can put on a great show. With today's studio technology, he said, anyone can create a perfect-sounding album. It just takes ProTools and hours of work. But he checks out potential signings and if they can do it live, he is interested. I think he has a great discovery in Tavares. Check her website for tour dates. Don't miss her.


TCHEKA
NU MONDA (Times Square FQT-CD1804)

Tcheka is a Cape Verdean guitarist and singer with a strong, individual sound. He has Jesus on his side, but we will let that slide for now. After a brief opening ballad he unleashes some bright rhythms to show off his chops on the acoustic guitar. The lad can play. In fact he wrote the opening and closing cuts of the latest Lura album but has now launched his solo career with a dozen of his own compositions. Suddenly we are all expert in traditional rhythms of Cabo Verde, like the batuque for example. Just last month in Berkeley we saw Lura take her pad of folded cloth between her knees and beat on it with her hands. This was the women's response to the ban on drums (by both the Catholic church and the Portuguese colonists) and Tcheka grew up on the island of Santiago hearing his dad, a violinist, playing these rhythms. He has adapted them to modern instruments but we are still held by the ancient feeling, poised on the air like a hawk somewhere between Angola, Brasil and Coimbra. Neither European, African, nor New World in its sensibility but something unique. We can connect Cesaria Evora's morna style to Portuguese fado with a hint of Brasilian medinha, but Tcheka has something palpably different. "Kre ka nha" reminded me of Lenine, the talented Brasilian singer/songwriter. NU MONDA was recorded in Paris so it could be this kid from the islands has a bigger CD collection than we are led to believe. He was born on the eve of independence (1975) but has learned his history. "Rozadi Rezadu" is about the famine of 1947 when even prayers to St Anthony went unanswered: the cattle died and families fled to Angola. Saint Anthony, an impoverished saint who spurned worldly goods and held out for higher things, is big in Portugal and subsequently in their old empire. You can feel Tcheka reaching for higher things in his music. This is a very accomplished album, brilliantly executed.


Lura: Photo copyright by Deborah Metsch

LURA IN CONCERT
Wheeler Auditorium, UC BERKELEY 20 April 2007

One of Cabo Verde's main exports seems to be music. I am always a bit skeptical about the publicity surrounding the latest diva from the islands. Cesaria Evora had her moment and, while there may be a craving to replace her, she is still successfully replicating herself, like Sade with a cigar. Lura has put out a second album M'BEM DI FORA, and her label graciously forwarded a copy to me, but frankly, after a spin, I put it in the reject pile. Now I am a bit chagrined, feeling I didn't give it a fair shake. I mean, I get to audition a lot of music, not all of it good. If it doesn't grab me on one or two tastes I generally dump it like a wine-taster spitting out an expensive Chardonnay because he was expecting Prosecco. So, last week IJ called and asked me if I wanted to go to a concert as his plus one. It was a Friday night and he had a pair of tickets to hear Lura at UC Berkeley. A free ticket and a nice venue only a 5-minute walk from my pad, how could I say no? Blame the aftermath of 9/11, but we don't get much good music touring in the USA. If you follow what UC Berkeley is bringing to town, it's always the same few acts lumped under the World Music sobriquet. (Planet Drum with Mickey Hart, Mariza, Hugh Masakela, Angelique Kidjo, Peru Negro, Sweet Honey in the Rock, Arlo Guthrie [sic] -- that's their idea of world music?!) They had booked Lura into Wheeler Auditorium: a smaller venue than Zellerbach though not dancer friendly like Pauley Ballroom (where I saw Iggy Pop back in the 70s). From the first notes you knew her band was going to be good. The musical director is Toy Viera, also the arranger for Cesaria Evora. Edevaldo Figueiredo was thwocking a 5-string bass, Aurelio Santos was deftly making complex runs on an acoustic guitar, while two percussionists pushed the tempo. Kau Paris on drums had a light touch, using his brushes a lot, while Jair Pina slapped a brace of congas. There was also a violinist, Guillaume Singer, with a lilting touch. Lura walked out in a simple figure-hugging black dress: she has a large head and small body, but is attractive and charismatic. She electrified the audience, even those middle-aged drudges who had finished the work week and were expecting some soothing ballads. She covered a wide range of traditional Cabo Verdean music, including funana, which uses a scraper and metal bar, and other up-tempo stuff, removed from the mournful morna associated with Evora. The audience loved it when she played a batuque -- a rhythm associated with women who slap a pile of laundry. But then she got into some butt-shaking that had the guys craning their necks to see her flashing thighs. I gave up wiggling my ears to understand the patois lyrics and enjoyed the spectacle instead. There were moments of jazz, hints of Brasil (particularly in some of her vocal inflections) and lots of rootsy percussion. Often the whole band abandoned their instruments to get into a percussion groove. They had the audience on their feet, cheering. Afterwards IJ & I discussed the perennial problem of live performers who can really deliver the goods but are hamstrung by producers who have a concept and therefore go for a consistent sound and the album ends up being sonic oatmeal. According to IJ most of the material was drawn from her 2005 debut album DI KORPU KU ALMA, which I will look out for. If Lura can capture her live sound on record she will undoubtedly become a major international star and we can look forward to her bright presence in future tours.


SARA TAVARES
BALANCÊ (Times Square TSQCD9054)

Sara Tavares is a super-talented songwriter, singer and guitarist. She sounds Brasilian with that deft samba touch, but is the child of second-generation Cape Verdean immigrants in Portugal. She won TV talent shows when she was 16, covering gospel and soul songs, but has been working on her African roots for the past five years and has come up with her third album, a successful blend of various musical styles. It's beautifully produced and recorded with subtle instrumentation. Overall it may put you to sleep, but I found it so well articulated I could actually follow the Portuguese lyrics, which are included (with English translation) in the booklet. On scrutiny it turns out she sings in a mixture of crioulo, Portuguese and English -- a patois spoken by expats in Lisbon. It's an intriguing album because Tavares overdubs light percussion herself, so you know she has a clear sense of what she wants it to sound like. The other musicians, on acoustic guitar, drums, accordion, keep things from getting too languid. The final cut "De Nua" features guest vocalist Ana Moura: there is only simple drumming backing this (played by Ms Tavares), the most African-sounding piece, and it demonstrates that she really can do it, unadorned. Balancê is currently the most-downloaded album on iTunes' Portuguese site. I recommend you check out the title track and, if that appeals to you, go for more.

VOZ DE CABO VERDE
LIVE (Lusafrica 362902)

Young Doctor Chris called me up late one night, all excited. I figured he was test-driving some advanced medical experiment on his central nervous system as it must have been 3 a.m. where he was. He wanted me to hear something and propped the phone up to a speaker. This is something I hate: you can't hear the music very well and yelling "Okay, enough already!" doesn't help because the person on the other end has put the phone down to go to the bathroom or get another beer or whatever while you enjoy the music. Just like being on hold to a software company! So after a while he comes back on, breathlessly asking me what I think. It's "Bruca Manigua" by Arsenio Rodriguez played by Africans, I tell him. Yes, right on! but what do you think? Hard to say, it was scratchy but had energy. It is Senegalese? I ask. No, Cabo Verdean. It's this great old album called Voz de Cabo Verde, he tells me, something he picked up on his last trip to Africa. So I was pleased to get the new Voz de Cabo Verde album, it seemed like synchronicity. They have followed in the footsteps of some of their illustrious neighbours, Baobab, Bembeya Jazz and Rail Band, and reformed to have one more swirl around the dancefloor under the glitterball. It's just a little weary. The horns are consistently off, but the vocalists have their moments of sprightliness. Their chops haven't improved with age, but the audience is eating it up, and there's a big room boom to the recording which is fun but it seems like a sleepy 50s kind of night rather than something in the modern world. If you like Cabo Verdean music you will want this and you should check it out anyway.

AFRICA NEGRA
PANELA (Sonovox 11 340-21995)

If, like me, you'll buy a CD for one outstanding track you may have LuakaBop's TELLING STORIES TO THE SEA because of the presence of Africa Negra and their song about being bitten by a dog. There is another Lusophone compilation called INDEPENDENCIA that has another track by this band, "Alice," and a third cut appears on PALOP AFRICA! Another instance of "must have the CD for that one song." With some effort, you can get their albums from a Portuguese distributor, Bem Vindo (their website is not always working). Africa Negra have half a dozen CDs out (ANINHA, CARAMBOLA, LOJOMATO) recorded in Lisbon. João Seria is the leader and chief singer and the band's career seems to have thrived in the 1970s and 80s. Their songs are hits from Angola to Coimbra. Their groove is uniquely theirs, but the queasy organ and mechanical-sounding drums remind me of Sweet Micky, the one-man band from Haiti. Folks either love this or hate it. The title cut to PANELA sounds harsh because of a brittle organ settling, and the guitars on my favourite track, "Mulatta," seem atonal because the effects pedals are turned up. Nevertheless, it is a distinctive sound and, to me, extremely catchy.

AFRICA NEGRA
ANGELICA (Sonovis Portugal)

This conjunto are from São Tome e Principe, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, and they are chief exponents of Santomense music. João Seria is the singer; the guitarist is influenced equally by soukous and highlife which makes for a tasty blend. Their music is also popular in Colombia, as a bit of Googling turns up a fan site there, with music samples. The bass and drums lean to the Antillean side, showing where zouk and Congolese rumba meet.

Formed in the late 70s, Africa Negra put out half a dozen albums, recorded in Lisbon, that are beloved in the Portuguese-speaking world. Each has something to recommend it. ANGELICA includes the song about the dog biting you, and the title track and opener, "São Tome," are equally as good. "Cimoda" is an attempt at funk, but more Nigerian funk than American, I'd venture. Their music seems to suspend time, in a danceable groove. The trance is woven by guitar lines treated through flanger and echo as the bass and drums keep up a distinctive 144-bpm bomp (not on all the tracks). If you love Sam Mangwana's African All Stars from the 80s, Eddy Gustav's production work, or Ryco Jazz, you will want to track down these discs.

FERRO GAITA
REI DI FUNANA (Harmonia 02305-2 Melodie)

Ferro Gaita, the names of the two instruments used in Funana, is also the name of a roots band from Cabo Verde. Their new album REI DI FUNANA is a rocking, jam-kicking party to go. I have to admit I've never gone for the torpid Cesaria Evora sound much, so I'm glad to recommend something from Cabo Verde that has a lot of life to it. The closest thing I can think of is bachata from Dominican Republic. There's a relentless two-step thud to the bass and by the second cut a layering effect like dub hits the sound and things start to swirl giddily out of control. Track four has a repeat of the same rastafarian reverb effect, but this time it starts to loop like pygmy polyphony and creates a hypnotic outro. Intense, varied, and big fun: check it out.

VARIOUS ARTISTS
PALOP AFRICA! (Earthworks STEW46CD)

I wasn't aware of the African music connection when I visited Portugal a decade ago. The Brazilian influence was everywhere and in an odd reversal of countries which are full of peoples from their former colonies, the goal of everyone I met in Portugal was to get out and move to Brazil. Everything stopped at 7 p.m. when the Brazilian soap operas came on television. While I did know about Portugal's colonial past I was ignorant of the African music scene in Lisbon that revolves around musicians from the five former African colonies in Africa (that were established over 500 years ago). This release from Stern's/Earthworks documents this scene: PALOP AFRICA! features bands that originated in Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Cape Verde, São Tome, and Mozambique. Among them is Africa Negra, a personal favourite as their music makes a nice conjunction somewhere between soukous and Nigerian highlife with a warbly flanged rhythm guitar. They appeared on two previous compilations: 1975-95 INDEPENDENCIA and AFROPEA 3: TELLING STORIES TO THE SEA, and have a new release on the Sons D'Afrique label called QUE COLO DE ANZU. All this despite the fact that it's virtually impossible to get guitar strings on the island of São Tome. The Angolans have a musical style called Semba which is akin to Brazilian Samba, and there's a fine example of it here from Paulo Flores, one of that country's biggest stars. There's a strong South African influence on the music of G. Mario Ntimana, the self-styled King of Marrabenta. Don Kikas from Angola has worked with zouk musicians in Paris and is the hottest thing in Kizomba as that French Caribbean sound has caught on there big time. In addition to the Brazilian influence you can smell the salt air of the sea shanties underlining the accordion (gaita) parts to "Cabra Preta" by Sema Lopi. They are a rootsy funana band using a ferro (metal rod) as percussion and add a balance to the slicker sounds of this compelling compilation.

VARIOUS ARTISTS
MUSIC FROM SAO NICOLAU (Popular African Music)

The latest Cabo Verdean sound is a twenty-year-old recording, MUSIC FROM SAO NICOLAU put out by Popular African Music in conjunction with the University of Mainz Institute for African Studies. São Nicolau is one of the minor islands in the Cabo Verdean archipelago and remains relatively isolated from the rest of Africa. The music there thrives in its own world without too much outside influence but still, in the two decades since this album was recorded, zouk, rock and reggae have overtaken the youth and many of the older forms documented here are no longer being played. The cavaquinho player of the Da Cruz ensemble is already working some reggae chops behind the gypsy-like violin on track 16, "Regui." The music is very lyrical with mellow acoustic guitar duos and trios. The songs are mostly slow and tend to be mournful. There is a version of "Sodade (Nostalgia)" that will be familiar to fans of Cesaria Evora that combines samba and coladeira. Larger ensembles add violin and cavaquinho. One carnaval march, "Estrela Azul" ([wherever you go you're sure to find a] Blue Star) could be right out of the streets of Rio. There are two poignant songs of a young laundress, accompanied by her washboard; a nightwatchman who improvises verses with his strangely tuned 10-string guitar that put me in mind of Barbecue Bob for a moment. The CD ends with three short yells to scare away birds from the grain fields.

VARIOUS ARTISTS
TELLING STORIES TO THE SEA (Warner Bros/Luaka Bop 45669-2 1995)

After a couple of successful sorties to Brazil, David Byrne and his lackeys have now ransacked the archives of Lusophone music from Africa to produce Adventures in Afropea 3: Afro-Portugal. The scattered cultures of Africa that share Portuguese as a language include Angola and the dozen tiny islands of São Tomé, Principé and Cape Verde, from whence come the sultry song-stylings of the immensely popular Césaria Evora. Evora is represented in two great tracks including the acoustic "Sodade" which calls to mind Brasilian samba. But the unknown artists here are equally impressive. Tulipa Negra provides an anthemic speedy merengue; "Vizinha ka bale (My neighbour's no good)" by Jacinta Sanches has all the raw energy of early Zouk; and a song about being bitten by a dog by Africa Negra from São Tomé adding a wonderfully wobbly tremelo guitar solo that unleashes the endorphin rush of an all-night dance party.

ZÈ MANEL
MARRON DI MAR (Cobiana)

Zè Manel is a singer from Guinea-Bissau, formerly with Super Mama Djombo. MARRON DI MAR is his polyglot CD on the Cobiana label, recorded in Oakland, California. He starts out with a plea in English for unity, "Afrika Unite," which is rather laid-back for the urgency of the message. His delivery is reminiscent of Bob Marley, though the music is more Monty Alexander piano-bar jazz than Wailing Wailers. But this is a mellow album: it doesn't strike out into new territory but the familiarity is pleasant. If you buy albums for one or two good tracks, this has a couple of really nice songs on it: "Na kaminho di luta" ("On the path of struggle" in Portuguese patois) has a superb acoustic guitar by Samba N'go and moody sax backing by Norbert Stachel.

See also SUPER MAMA DJOMBO DISCOGRAPHY linked on the African discography page.